Births and deaths

Births and deaths have an impact on the national and local populations. The latest births and deaths figures, from the Office for National Statistics, show that on a basic count level the Lancashire-12 area continues to register more deaths than live births (2018-2022). At district level, in 2022 Burnley, Chorley, Fylde, Lancaster, Ribble Valley, Rossendale, South Ribble, West Lancashire and Wyre registered more deaths than live births. 

Key findings


The number of births in a given year is dependent on the number of women of childbearing age (15–44 years) and on fertility rates in that year, as well as annual changes in the size and age-structure of the female population, alongside migration and mortality. 

General fertility rate

The general fertility rate (GFR) is the total number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age (15 to 44 years) in a population per year. This is a more refined way to measure fertility in a population, rather than crude birth rate because the GFR accounts for the female population aged 15 to 44 years as the denominator, rather than the whole population. Despite this, differences in GFR may be due to underlying variations in the age structure of the female population over time or across populations of interest.

  • The Lancashire-12 area has a GFR of 52.0 for the calendar year 2022 (England=51.9), down from 54.2 in 2021 (England=54.2 in 2021).
  • At district level, Pendle (62.3), Hyndburn (60.7), Burnley (59.2), Rossendale (56.3) and Preston (53.0) have a higher GFR than England (2022).
  • Both unitary authorities (Blackburn with Darwen=59.0, Blackpool=60.1) have a higher GFR than England (2022).

Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of live children that a group of women would bear if they experienced the age-specific fertility rates of the calendar year in question, throughout their childbearing lifespan. 

  • The recent trend shows that over the past ten years (2013-2022), in line with the national and regional picture, Lancashire-12 area has seen a decrease in its TFR, from 1.9 in 2013 to 1.6 in 2022 (England=1.8 in 2013 and 1.5 in 2022).
  • At district level, Pendle (1.9), Hyndburn (1.8), Burnley (1.8) and Rossendale (1.7) have a higher TFR than the Lancashire-12 TFR (2022). 


  • In the Lancashire-12 area (398.7) the premature mortality rate (under-75 years, all persons) from all causes is significantly higher than the England rate (355.3) (2020-22).
  • At district level, in Preston (487.0), Burnley (485.6), Hyndburn (481.6), Rossendale (425.3), Pendle (409.3), Lancaster (406.5) and Wyre (388.6) the premature mortality rate (under-75 years, all persons) from all causes is significantly higher than the England rate (2020-22).

For more information about mortality rates across Lancashire-14, please see our mortality page. You may also be interested in our maternity and infancy pages.

There are also individual births and deaths graphs for every district in the Area Profiles section of Lancashire Insight.

Further analysis and data

Births and deaths (XLSX 96 KB)

Page updated May 2024