Trading advice from several sources is available to help businesses comply with the law.
The Health and Safety Executive website has advice on:
The Chartered Trading Standards Institute provides advice on a number of topics:
In the guide
Check the details and health status of the livestock you buy or sell
Note: although the United Kingdom has left the European Union, certain EU laws (known as 'retained' laws) will still apply until such time as they are replaced by new UK legislation; this means that you will still see references to EU legislation in our guidance.
This guidance is for England
If you are buying livestock, it is in your interest to ensure that you are purchasing what you want and know exactly what it is.
It is important that you know the health status of your own herd / flock and that of any animals being purchased. If at all in doubt you should take advice from your veterinary surgeon. In most cases, incoming stock should be isolated / quarantined in accordance with veterinary advice.
If you are selling livestock, it is your responsibility to ensure that any form of representation (including advertising) that is made in connection with the livestock, in order to promote the supply or transfer of the livestock, is true.
If you are selling livestock it is your responsibility to ensure that any form of representation (including advertising) made in connection with the sale of your livestock, in order to promote the supply or transfer of ownership, is true.
Representation includes such things as the identity of the animal, its ear tags, passport, date of birth, pedigree certificate, milk records, breeding records, health status, history, farm-assured status, and any description you apply to the animal. All information given by you or in any document - for example, sale entry form or food chain information declaration - must be true.
It is a criminal offence to mislead.
SALE BY AUCTION THROUGH A MARKET
It is an offence under the Welfare of Animals at Markets Order 1990 for any person (including the owner or person in charge of the animals, and the auctioneer and their company) to expose an animal for sale at a market if the animal is:
Misdescribing animals is an offence under the Business Protection from Misleading Marketing Regulations 2008. Regulation 3 says advertising is misleading that "in any way, including its presentation, deceives or is likely to deceive the trader to whom it is addressed or whom it reaches; and by reason of its deceptive nature, is likely to affect their economic behaviour; or for those reasons, injures or is likely to injure a competitor".
More information on the Business Protection from Misleading Marketing Regulations 2008 can be found in 'Business-to-business marketing'.
A similar offence exists - under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 - for misdescribing animals if the purchaser is not a business. Regulation 3 prohibits unfair commercial practices.
More information on these Regulations can be found in 'Consumer protection from unfair trading'.
If you are buying livestock it is in your interest to satisfy yourself about such matters as the identity, breed, sex, age, pedigree, farm-assured status and health status before agreeing to purchase.
If in doubt about any information concerning the animal you must ask the seller.
Do not make assumptions and ensure you ask enough questions to know exactly what you are getting. You must be told the truth, but if you don't ask you may not find out until it is too late.
Transport of livestock from the place of sale
When transporting livestock:
For more information see 'Transporting livestock by road: paperwork'.
Food chain information
Animals intended for slaughter must be accompanied to the slaughterhouse by a food chain information (FCI) declaration - detailing any veterinary medicine withdrawal periods that must be observed and any signs of abnormality - which must be completed by the owner or person in charge of the animal, as required by the Food Safety and Hygiene (England) Regulations 2013 and Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin.
Note: this requirement is particularly important when diseased animals are sold to go direct to slaughter, ensuring that both buyer and seller are clear about their condition.
See also 'Food chain information'; there are no set formats for FCI declarations but this guide contains a link to formats suggested by the Food Standards Agency (FSA).
SALE OF GOODS ACT 1979
The Sale of Goods Act 1979 puts terms into a contract that do not need to be set out in writing or orally agreed but still form part of a contract. When you buy goods from a trader (for example, a farmer) a contract is entered into and the seller must sell goods that are:
Failure to meet these requirements results in a breach of contract and the buyer may be entitled to redress.
UNFAIR TERMS AND CONDITIONS
If you are buying livestock for commercial purposes then it is likely that you will be entering into a business-to-business transaction, which means the seller can put restrictions into the terms and conditions of the contract. However, these restrictions would only apply if they were fair and satisfied the test of reasonableness under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977.
Where the sale is from a business to a consumer the Consumer Rights Act 2015 will apply; please see 'The sale and supply of goods' for more information.
When you buy goods from a private individual you do not have the same rights as when buying from a trader. You have no rights to expect that goods be of satisfactory quality or fit for their purpose, but there is a requirement that they should be 'as described' and that the seller has the legal right to sell them (is the owner, for example). You should check goods thoroughly before you buy them.
Misrepresentation may be actionable where there is a materially false statement of fact made by one party (or their agent) that is intended to, and does, induce the other party to enter the contract. A statement may be made in writing, orally or even by conduct (making the goods tell a lie about themselves). A mere statement of opinion, provided it is genuinely held, is not a statement of fact. However, a statement of opinion by someone in a position to know the facts will be regarded as a statement of fact.
If the livestock purchased is misdescribed, not fit for purpose or of satisfactory quality then the buyer has the legal right to the following remedies:
The appropriate remedy depends on the circumstance of the sale - for example, if the breach of contract is so slight that it would be unreasonable to reject the animal then it may not be possible to rescind the contract; in these circumstances damages or corrective action will be applicable.
If the parties involved are unable to settle an agreement, the buyer might need to seek a remedy through the County Court.
Generally, if the claim is for £10,000 or less and is relatively straightforward, it will be allocated to the 'small claims track'. If the value of the claim is between £10,000 and £25,000 it will be allocated to the 'fast track'. If it is a complex case and the value of the claim is more than £25,000 it will be allocated to the 'multi track'. Sometimes claims for more than £10,000 can be allocated to the small claims track if the court allows it.
More information on making a claim in court is available on the GOV.UK website.
Failure to comply with trading standards law can lead to enforcement action and to sanctions, which may include a fine and/or imprisonment. For more information please see 'Trading standards: powers, enforcement and penalties'.
Last reviewed / updated: October 2019
This information is intended for guidance; only the courts can give an authoritative interpretation of the law.
The guide's 'Key legislation' links may only show the original version of the legislation, although some amending legislation is linked to separately where it is directly related to the content of a guide. Information on amendments to legislation can be found on each link's 'More Resources' tab.
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