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In the guide
If you transport animals as part of your business, they must be fit for the journey and must not suffer unduly during it, and the means of transport must be appropriate for the species concerned
Note: although the United Kingdom has left the European Union, certain pieces of legislation (formally known as 'retained EU law') will still apply until such time as they are replaced by new UK legislation; this means that you will still see references to EU regulations in our guidance.
This guidance is for England
Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations (implemented in England by the Welfare of Animals (Transport) (England) Order 2006) applies to persons who transport live vertebrate animals, including farm livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, poultry, deer and horses) in connection with an economic activity (in other words, a business or trade).
Animals must be fit for the intended journey and no person must transport or cause an animal to be transported in a way likely to cause injury or undue suffering.
The Regulation does not apply to the transport of animals when not in connection with an economic activity or to the transport of invertebrate animals. However, a general duty-of-care provision exists, protecting invertebrates and animals involved in non-commercial movements from injury or unnecessary suffering.
All persons who transport animals, however far, have a duty to ensure that the animals are transported in a way that is not likely to cause injury or unnecessary suffering. They must be transported in a means of transport and under conditions that are suitable for that animal.
Farmers transporting their own animals must ensure that:
Fitness of animals for transport
Animals must be fit for the intended journey before the journey starts and must remain sufficiently fit throughout the journey.
Animals that are injured, weak or diseased must not be considered fit for transport, particularly if they:
Sedatives must not be used on animals to be transported, unless under veterinary supervision.
If any animals do fall ill or become injured during transport they must be separated, given appropriate veterinary treatment and if necessary undergo emergency slaughter or killing in a way that does not cause them undue suffering.
Transport requirements for young animals
Appropriate bedding must be provided for:
The bedding material must provide comfort appropriate to the species and ensure adequate absorption of urine and faeces.
Means of transport
The means of transport must be designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to :
The means of transport should:
Vehicles must carry suitable equipment for loading and unloading. The vehicles' surface, including the loading and unloading equipment, must enable cleansing and disinfection between journeys. For vehicle cleansing and disinfection requirements please refer to 'Cleansing and disinfection of vehicles'.
Ramps must not be steeper than an angle of 20 degrees (36.4% to the horizontal) for pigs, calves and horses; and an angle of 26 degrees 34 minutes (50% to the horizontal) for sheep and cattle other than calves.
Where the slope is steeper than 10 degrees (17.6% to the horizontal) ramps must be fitted with a system such as that provided by foot battens, which ensure that the animals climb or go down without risks or difficulties.
Space allowances (transport by road)
|Category||Approximate weight (kg)||Area (m2 / animal)|
|small calves||50||0.3 to 0.4|
|medium sized calves||110||0.4 to 0.7|
|heavy calves||200||0.7 to 0.95|
|medium size cattle||325||0.95 to 1.3|
|heavy cattle||550||1.3 to 1.6|
|very heavy cattle||more than 700||more than 1.6|
|Category||Weight (kg)||Area (m2 / animal)|
|shorn sheep and lambs of 26 kg and over||< 55||0.2 to 0.3|
|shorn sheep and lambs of 26 kg and over||> 55||> 30|
|unshorn sheep||< 55||0.3 to 0.4|
|unshorn sheep||> 55||> 0.4|
|heavily pregnant ewes||< 55||0.4 to 0.5|
|heavily pregnant ewes||> 55||> 0.5|
Pigs must be able to lie down and stand up in their natural position. In order to comply with the minimum requirements, the loading density for pigs of around 100 kg should not exceed 235 kg/m2.
Before commencing a journey, transporters must ensure they have the following in place:
An attendant must accompany the animals, except where the driver performs the functions of an attendant. All attendants must hold a certificate of competence for the species of animals transported. More information can be found in 'Transporting livestock by road: paperwork'; this guide also includes information on transporting livestock to (or through) the EU, which has changed as of 1 January 2021.
When handling the animals, attendants must not:
Failure to comply with trading standards law can lead to enforcement action and to sanctions, which may include a fine and/or imprisonment. For more information please see 'Trading standards: powers, enforcement and penalties'.
Last reviewed / updated: March 2021
In this update
Link to information on transporting livestock to (or through) the EU
This information is intended for guidance; only the courts can give an authoritative interpretation of the law.
The guide's 'Key legislation' links may only show the original version of the legislation, although some amending legislation is linked to separately where it is directly related to the content of a guide. Information on amendments to legislation can be found on each link's 'More Resources' tab.
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