Trading advice from several sources is available to help businesses comply with the law.
The Health and Safety Executive website has advice on:
The Chartered Trading Standards Institute provides advice on a number of topics:
In the guide
Horses' fitness for, and welfare during, journeys by road; plus other requirements, including the suitability of vehicles
Note: although the United Kingdom has left the European Union, certain pieces of legislation (formally known as 'retained EU law') will still apply until such time as they are replaced by new UK legislation; this means that you will still see references to EU regulations in our guidance.
This guidance is for England
It is an offence to transport any horse, as part of an economic activity, in a way that causes or is likely to cause it unnecessary suffering. Horses must not be transported unless they are fit for the intended journey. All necessary arrangements, including taking into account weather conditions, must be made in advance of commencing the transport of horses to minimise the length of the journey and to meet the animals' needs.
Vehicles used for the transport of horses must be designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to avoid injury and suffering, and to ensure the safety of the animals.
Keepers must carry a horse passport (equine identification document) for each animal transported and may also require additional transport documentation depending on the length of the journey.
Although 'economic activity' (in other words, a business or trade) is not specifically defined in Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations it is clear that transport for commercial purposes is not limited to those occasions where an immediate exchange of money, goods or services takes place; it also includes transport that directly or indirectly involves or aims at a financial gain.
For the purposes of this guidance, 'horse' includes pony, donkey, ass, mule and hinny.
Horses must be accompanied by their horse passport at all times during transportation.
There are a few exemptions to this requirement. Passports are not required to accompany the horse during transport if it is:
Temporary documents may only be used for up to 45 days and horses cannot be exported without additional documentation.
The person with primary responsibility for the horse must have the passport made available to them if they are not the owner.
It is an offence to transport a horse without its passport.
For more information please see 'Horse passports'.
All registered horses must be registered with a recognised breed society or company such as Weatherbys.
Registered horses that are not going to market or slaughter are exempt from the requirement for journey logs, watering and feeding intervals, journey times and rest periods, and animal transport certificates (ATCs).
Fitness of horses for transportation
A horse that is to be transported in connection with an economic activity must not be transported unless it is fit for the intended journey. A horse is not considered fit for transport if it is:
When animals fall ill during transport they must be separated from other animals and receive treatment as soon as possible.
Note: registered horses are exempt from the Regulation prohibiting the transport of pregnant females beyond 90% of their gestation period and transporting mares with their newly born foals, if the journey is to improve the health and welfare conditions of the birth, and if permanently accompanied throughout the journey by a dedicated attendant.
A horse may not be dragged or pushed by any means, or lifted by a mechanical device, unless under the supervision and in the presence of a veterinary surgeon who is arranging for it to be transported with all practicable speed to a place for veterinary treatment.
It is prohibited to:
Horses older than eight months, except unbroken horses, must wear halters during transport. For animals that need to be tied, the rope, tethers or other means used must:
Unbroken horses must not be transported in groups larger than four.
During transport, horses must be accompanied by an animal transport certificate, giving details of the journey and the horses being transported. Persons transporting their own horses by their own means of transport and for a distance of less than 50 km from their holding are exempt from this requirement.
Anyone transporting horses in connection with an economic activity on journeys over 65 km and under eight hours must:
For journeys over eight hours transporters must:
Animal transport certificates must be kept as a record for two years. Records obtained using the navigation system keep must be kept for three years (this requirement does not apply to registered equines).
Note: in all cases, a journey starts from a place where animals are first loaded and have been accommodated for at least 48 hours.
See also 'Transporting livestock by road: paperwork'; this guide also includes information on transporting livestock to (or through) the EU, which has changed as of 1 January 2021.
For further details of the legal requirements relating to the transportation of animals please contact APHA on 03000 200301.
Construction of vehicles
Vehicles used for the transport of horses must be designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to:
Vehicles in which horses are transported must be clearly and visibly marked indicating the presence of live animals.
Vehicles used for the transport of horses for over eight hours must be inspected and approved by an authorised body.
|Age / type||Area (m2 per animal)|
|adult horses||1.75 m2 (0.7 × 2.5 m)|
|young horses (6-24 months) (for journeys of up to 48 hours)||1.2 m2 (0.6 × 2 m)|
|young horses (6-24 months) (for journeys over 48 hours)||2.4 m2 (1.2 × 2 m)|
|ponies (under 144 cm)||2.4 m2 (1.2 × 2 m)|
|foals (0-6 months)||1.4 m2 (1 × 1.4 m)|
These figures may vary by a maximum of 10% for adult horses and ponies, and by a maximum of 20% for young horses and foals, depending not only on the horses' weight and size but also on their physical condition, the meteorological conditions and the likely journey time.
Welfare during transport
During transport, horses must be accompanied by a competent person.
Horses must not be transported in a vehicle with more than one deck in operation. Minimum internal height must be 75 cm higher than the height of the withers of the highest animal.
During long journeys, foals and young horses must be able to lie down.
When transported in groups, horses older than eight months must wear halters (unless they are unbroken).
Halters and ropes must:
Tied animals must be transported separately from untied animals.
Unbroken horses must not be transported in groups of more than four individual horses.
Horses must be handled and transported separately in the following cases:
A stallion or a mare with a foal at foot may not be transported in the same undivided vehicle as any other horse (unless the horses were raised in compatible groups, are accustomed to each other or where separation will cause distress).
Protective boots, bandages, poll and tail guards, and rugs may be useful to protect those areas of the horse that are most likely to suffer bruising or rubbing during transport, or in the case of rugs, to keep the horse warm or to prevent chilling due to sweating. All equipment must fit correctly, be suitable for the purpose for which it is intended, and be securely fastened to prevent slipping or risk of injury. Additional information is available in the Defra document Welfare of Animals During Transport: Advice for Transporters of Horses, Ponies and Other Domestic Equines.
Permitted journey times
No horse may be transported on a journey in excess of eight hours, except in an approved vehicle. In an approved vehicle horses may be transported for 24 hours, as long as they are given liquid and (if necessary) fed at eight-hour intervals. At the end of the 24-hour period of transport, horses must be unloaded, fed, watered and rested for at least 24 hours.
Where horses are not led into or out of a vehicle, the loading ramp must be provided with protection on each side, sufficient to prevent them from falling off or escaping. Ramps must not have an angle exceeding 20° and must be fitted with foot battens or similar to prevent slipping. Precautions in the form of partitions must be fitted to support the horses and prevent them being thrown about by the motion of the vehicle.
Cleansing and disinfection of vehicles
This is covered by the Transport of Animals (Cleansing and Disinfection) (England) (No. 3) Order 2003.
Any person transporting horses must ensure that:
This applies to both pet and commercial horses.
Cleansing and disinfection of means of transport:
If the same means of transport is used to transport cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, deer, racing pigeons and poultry then it must be cleansed and disinfected using an approved disinfectant before loading; see 'Cleansing and disinfection of vehicles' for more information.
Disposal of material after cleansing
All material removed from vehicles after cleansing has been carried out must have one of the following done to it:
Failure to comply with trading standards law can lead to enforcement action and to sanctions, which may include a fine and/or imprisonment. For more information please see 'Trading standards: powers, enforcement and penalties'.
Last reviewed / updated: March 2021
In this update
Link to information on transporting livestock to (or through) the EU
This information is intended for guidance; only the courts can give an authoritative interpretation of the law.
The guide's 'Key legislation' links may only show the original version of the legislation, although some amending legislation is linked to separately where it is directly related to the content of a guide. Information on amendments to legislation can be found on each link's 'More Resources' tab.
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