Cardiovascular disease


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), sometimes referred to as circulatory diseases, are diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease (CHD), heart attack and stroke. CVD is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis and is common in people aged over 60.  

The main causes of CVD are tobacco use, physical inactivity, an unhealthy diet and harmful alcohol use.

Key findings for Lancashire-14

The latest recorded prevalence figures (QoF 2016/17) show that the Lancashire & South Cumbria STP has significantly higher levels of recorded atrial fibrillation (AF), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and stroke compared to the England national average. With many of the CCGs that operate across the STP also recording significantly high prevalence for these conditions.

Whilst a number of CCGs have recorded significantly high admission rates for CHD, the rates have declined over time. However, admission rates for heart failure have gradually increased (2015/16).

Prescribing figures for 2016/17, based on the original 8 Lancashire-14 based CCGs, show that just over £31m was spent on prescribing over 10 million CVD items, with an average net ingredient cost (NIC) of £3.00 per item. At an individual CCG level, NIC per item ranged from £2.57 in Blackpool to £3.50 in West Lancashire.

Whilst CVD mortality is declining, it has still accounted for around 27% of all deaths over the past five years (2012-16), making it the second biggest killer across the Lancashire-12. With further analysis finding that males and persons aged 75+ account for the majority of such deaths. The main underlying causes of CVD mortality death is Ischaemic heart disease which accounted for almost half (47%, 7,725) of all CVD deaths, followed by Cerebrovascular diseases which accounted for a quarter (25%, 4,002) of all CVD deaths.

The latest directly standardised three-year (2014-16) mortality rates (DSR), show that Lancashire-12 as a whole, and a number of the districts within it plus both of the unitary authorities, have significantly higher all-age and premature (<75) CVD mortality than the England average. At a district level, the following areas were all found to have significantly high levels of all-age CVD mortality compared to England (252.7); Blackburn with Darwen (331.6), Blackpool (339.1), Burnley (284.8), Hyndburn (302.4), Lancaster (271.1), Pendle (286.6), Preston (297.8) and Rossendale (294.6).

Further information

The national cardiovascular intelligence network (NCVIN) has produced CCG profiles for cardiovascular disease, related diseases and risk factors, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has some guidance on the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Further analysis

 Cardiovascular disease in Lancashire-14 (PDF 1.24 MB)

Page updated January 2018