Cardiovascular disease

Summary

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), sometimes referred to as circulatory diseases, are diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease (CHD), heart attack and stroke. CVD is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis and is common in people aged over 60.  

The main causes of CVD are tobacco use, physical inactivity, an unhealthy diet and harmful alcohol use.

Key findings for Lancashire-14

The latest recorded prevalence figures from the Quality Outcomes Framework (QOF) for 2015/16 show that all six clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) in Lancashire-12 have a significantly higher prevalence of CHD (also known as ischaemic heart disease), hypertension (high blood pressure) and stroke than the England average. However modelled estimates suggest that the true prevalence could be much higher, indicating more work is required in identifying and diagnosing patients.

It was also found that the majority of CCGs have significantly higher levels of recorded atrial fibrillation, heart failure and peripheral arterial disease than the national average. High levels of CVD prevalence was also noted in the two neighbouring authorities of Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool.

Significantly high levels of hospital admissions for CHD were seen across Lancashire-14 with some CCGs also seeing significantly high levels of heart failure and stroke admissions, highlighting the impact on secondary care providers that CVDs present. Local analysis of hospital admissions across the six CCGs (2015/16) found that the majority of CVD admissions had a primary diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease, with persons aged 50+ and males found to be at greatest risk of admission.

Prescribing figures for 2015/16 show that the six CCGs spent over £24 million on prescribing items for cardiovascular diseases, with drugs for lowering cholesterol levels and those used for treating patients with high blood pressure and heart failure accounting for the majority of items prescribed.

At the CCG level, East Lancashire CCG, which is the biggest CCG in Lancashire-14, prescribed the most items for CVD. However, on a cost per item prescribed basis, it was found to have spent less per item than most other CCGs in Lancashire-14.

Whilst CVD mortality is declining it still accounts for 28% of all deaths in Lancashire-12. Compared to the national average, Lancashire-12 and a number of districts within it continue to record all-age and premature (under 75) mortality rates that are significantly above the England rate.

Local analysis of mortality in Lancashire-12 found that CHD is the leading cause of premature mortality amongst those who died with a CVD-related underlying cause of death, accounting for over half (55%) of such deaths between 2013 and 2015. Further analysis finds that males and those living in the poorest parts of Lancashire-12 are more likely to die prematurely from CVD.

Further information

The national cardiovascular intelligence network (NCVIN) has produced CCG profiles for cardiovascular disease, related diseases and risk factors, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has some guidance on the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Further analysis

 Cardiovascular disease in Lancashire-12, 2017 (PDF 1.2 MB)

 Page updated May 2017