Blackpool

This summary offers a snapshot of some of the most important economic, social and environmental factors in Blackpool unitary authority with links through to the source information. The information has been allocated to one of seven themes:

  1. Children and Young People
  2. People and Communities
  3. Economic Development
  4. Community Safety
  5. Environment and Transport
  6. Health and Wellbeing
  7. Older People

Introduction

Blackpool is a well known Lancashire coastal resort. In geographic terms it is by far the smallest Lancashire authority covering just 35 square kilometres, has 21 wards, and the number of people per km² is more than ten times the England and Wales average. From an historic point of view there have been dramatic changes and the pace of future change is liable to increase.     

  1. Children and Young People  

Key stage 4 covers the two years of school education that incorporates GCSEs in maintained schools. When using the former headline measure (percentage of pupils achieving five or more A*-C grades at GCSE or equivalent including English and Maths in 2015/16) the performance was just 43.0% in Blackpool. In 2016 a new secondary school GCSE accountability system was implemented, in which 'Attainment 8' measures achievement in maths and English plus other subjects with less weighting. By this new measure the average score for Blackpool in 2015/16 was 43.8. This was the lowest percentage among the 14 local authorities in the broader Lancashire area. However at Key stage 1 the year 1 and 2 pupils were assessed to be about as good as, if not better than, those in other districts. The Department for Education achievement and attainment tables have more information on achievement at other levels. 

Only a relatively small number of families in Blackpool have an income level that led to them opting out of receiving child benefit.

  1. People and Communities

The population of the authority in 2016 was 139,195, a fall of over 1,300 from the 2014 figure. As would be expected in a coastal authority, there is a bias towards a higher percentage of people of retirement age. The total fertility rate in Blackpool was 2.09 in 2016. This was above the national average (1.81).  

Local authority live births and deaths graphs are available that track changes in births and deaths since the 1980s for each authority in Lancashire. The graph for Blackpool reveals how the gap between the numbers of births and deaths has closed over the years. 

It was projected that between 2014 and 2028 the population of Blackpool will actually decrease by 1.2%, before a slow recovery over the following 11 years, but has already decreased by 0.9% in 2 years. This is in contrast to the 4.4% increase expected over the 25 year period of the projections for the Lancashire 14-authority area and the England growth figure of 16.5%. The projected number of households in the authority is expected to grow by 4.7% between 2014 and 2039.  This compares to predictions of 10.4% for the Lancashire-14 area and 23.1% for England. 

The median house prices to earnings is relatively low in the authority. 

A mosaic profile of local households classifies Lancashire residents by 15 main groups. Transient renters and modest traditions (mature owners of value homes enjoying stable lifestyles) are the dominant groups in large parts of Blackpool. .

Blackpool has high proportions of its housing stock in the lowest two council tax bands (A and B). It maintains a proportion of its dwelling stock in local authority sector and has only a small percentage provided by registered social landlords. The authority also has a high percentage of vacant dwellings.

In Blackpool, 13.4% of households were estimated to be in fuel poverty in 2015. The main factors that determine this are the energy efficiency status of the property, the cost of energy, and household income. 

The 2015 Indices of Multiple Deprivation revealed Blackpool was ranked the 4th most deprived area out of 326 districts and unitary authorities in England, when measured by the rank of average rank. This was the worst ranking of all the 14-authorities in the broader Lancashire area. In total, 36 (38.3%) of the lower super output areas in the authority were among the 10% most deprived in the country, and 19 were also in the top 1% most deprived neighbourhoods in England..

The national lottery funding results for Blackpool are updated on a regular basis.

  1. Economic Development

Gross value added is a measure of economic activity, and the 2014 result for Blackpool revealed a per head of population figure that was just 60.6% of the UK average.

Employee numbers in Blackpool decreased in the decade to 2008, and between 2009 and 2014 employment in the authority declined by 6.1%. The authority has a high reliance on public-sector employment which has been under pressure over recent years.  Our extensive employment records allow us to monitor the changes to employee numbers from 1929 onwards. We have published separate graphs for each of the 14 Lancashire local authorities that reveal changes in total employee numbers and the shift from manufacturing to service sector employment. Methodological changes, and assumptions for missing years, reduce the accuracy of the graphs, but they do give a useful broad indication of changes over time. The graph for Blackpool is displayed below and reveals a relatively stable overall number of jobs since around 1950 onwards. 

As a major tourist destination Blackpool has always had a lower than average rate of employee jobs in the manufacturing sector, and therefore a much greater reliance on service sector employment. as expected, the authority is well-represented in the employment sector of arts, entertainment, recreation and other services.

The Blackpool Business Improvement District website includes monthly visitor economy performance reports. They include figures on footfall, resort pass sales, car park ticket sales, plus tram passenger numbers etc.   

Another part of the service sector that is a major source of employment in Blackpool, and the wider Fylde coast is public administration. The annual civil service employment survey emphasises the vital role that civil service employment still has in Blackpool. The numbers however have been on the decline to the detriment of the overall employment level in the authority. 

In 2017 there are 3,865 active enterprises in Blackpool, whilst the five-year survival rates for active enterprises reveal a poor outturn for the authority. A strong local visitor economy can often lead to high levels of business births and deaths.

The 2011 census revealed that there are strong commuting flows between the three Fylde Coast authorities of Fylde, Wyre and Blackpool. 

The UK government properties database is a searchable list of all UK government property holdings and land assets. The web page for the North West region lists land and properties by towns including those in Blackpool.

The most recent companies in Blackpool to win a Queen's Award for Enterprise are MacUK Neuroscience Ltd, in 2011 and T.I.S.S. Limited in 2014. 

Gambling forms part of the visitor economy and the gambling commission website contains licensing authority returns by local authority area for the past few financial years. Blackpool has by far the largest number of permits in the 14-authority Lancashire area. 

The present rules for the amount of European funding an area is entitled cover the period from 2014 to 2020. Assisted areas are those places where regional aid can be offered to undertakings, typically businesses, under state aid rules. In May 2014, it was confirmed that Blackpool has 11 wards with assisted area status. Please see the assisted areas map facility to identify specific wards.

The authority has a history of low overall employment rates in comparison to the national average.

Gross disposable household income is effectively the amount of money that after taxes, social contributions, pensions and housing interest  payments, households have available for spending or savings. The figure for Blackpool was lower than the county and UK average. The index figure, placing Blackpool within the UK compared other areas. showed a rapid decline until 2007, then began to recover.

Average earnings in Blackpool are very low when measured by both place of residence, the lowest in Lancashire, and by place of work, second lowest in Lancashire.

The survey of personal incomes by HM Revenue and customs broadly includes all individuals whose income is higher than the prevailing personal tax allowance and who are therefore liable to tax. The median results are the middle value that best reflects typical income and they show a result for Blackpool that is significantly below other Lancashire authorities. 

The authority has a very large number of employment and support allowance claimantsHousing benefit recipient numbers are also extremely high in the authority, but the local effect of the spare room subsidy withdrawal appears to be less pronounced than in some other areas of the county. In comparison to the national average, there is a very high percentage of the working age population that is reliant on welfare benefits

Universal credit is a benefit for people on low income or who are out of work. Numbers are updated on a monthly basis, and the substantial total for Blackpool is higher than any other Lancashire authority.

The personal insolvency rate in Blackpool per 10,000 population is one of the highest recorded among all the district and unitary authorities in England and Wales.  

  1. Community Safety

The recorded crime article Blackpool has a very high crime rate that is well in excess of the Lancashire-14 average. 

For details on community safety in your neighbourhood, please enter your postcode into Safer Lancashire.   

Alcohol is known to contribute to offending behaviour, particularly violence, anti-social behaviour and criminal damage.  Residents in the authority are significantly worse than the average for many of the alcohol indicators as detailed on the LAPE (Local Alcohol Profiles for England). The authority has a range of low ranks across a number of indicators.

The number of people killed or seriously injured in road traffic collisions in Blackpool was 85 in 2016, a serious increase compared to recent years.

Each year community safety partnerships (CSPs) undertake strategic assessments to identify priority work areas for the partnership. Plans, detailing these priority work areas and activity to address them are available from Blackpool CSP.   

  1. Environment and Transport

The authority has a very high proportion of workers who have a relatively short commute to work. The 2011 census indicated that 15,851 or a substantial 25.6% of Blackpool's working residents aged 16+ commute less than two kilometres. This is the highest percentage in Lancashire and is in excess of the regional and national averages. The authority also has the highest percentage in the 2-5km category (28.6%).

The Department for Transport website has a table with yearly traffic flow results and gives access to an interactive map that lists the traffic flow numbers at sites in Blackpool. The yearly figures reveal a recent pattern of declining traffic flows in Blackpool.

Using sustainable transport modes can significantly improve employment opportunities and life chances. In urban areas the reliance on the car presents problems of traffic congestion and reduced air quality. The coastal location normally allows good air quality results in Blackpool, but the latest (2014) emissions data indicates that in the local authority rankings it is the second worst for PM2.5 particulate emissions in Great Britain.

Blackpool Airport occupies a site that straddles the border between Blackpool and Fylde districts. It was formerly known as Squires Gate Airport and has an aviation history dating back to 1909. Commercial passenger services from the airport dramatically ceased in mid-October 2014, but a month later the airport reopened to general aviation traffic that included helicopters flights to offshore rigs. From 1st April 2015, Citywing re-commenced flights to the Isle-of-Man, but the company ceased trading in March 2017 ending all scheduled flights from the airport. In November 2015, the government approved the new Blackpool Enterprise Zone that covers the Blackpool airport site. 

The 11-mile tram link from south Blackpool (Starr Gate) to Fleetwood provides an important service for both locals and tourists. From the mid-1960s to the early 1990s, the Fylde Coast was the only place left in Great Britain with a street-running public tram service. Growth in traffic congestion, pollution and a focus on safety issues has brought into question the policies of previous generations. The passage of time has confirmed the foresight of those who kept the Fylde Coast route in operation. It reopened in April 2012 after being closed for a major upgrade. The large-scale investment represents a major transport improvement for visitors and residents along the Fylde Coast. The tram system passes through Cleveleys and terminates at Fleetwood. The recent public transport figures reveal that passenger numbers for the Blackpool tram system slumped to just 1.1 million in 2011/12. The economic downturn and closures for upgrades adversely affected the results, but the new investment led to figures of 4.3, 4.1, 4.9 and 5.1 million passenger journeys for the financial years from 2013/14 to 2016/17 respectively.

The local rail service is mainly provided by Northern, and the main Blackpool North railway station is one of the county's busiest. Work is continuing to electrify key rail routes between Manchester, Liverpool, Preston and Blackpool. As a result of this no trains will run on the line between Blackpool North and Kirkham until 25th March 2018, and the line between Blackpool South and Preston will be closed until 28th January 2018.

Green belts have been an enduring element of national planning policy. They check the unrestricted sprawl of large built-up areas; prevent neighbouring towns from merging into one another; assist in safeguarding the countryside, preserve the character of historic towns and encourage the recycling of derelict and other urban land. Blackpool has the lowest percentage of land designated as green belt in Lancashire. This figure is not however surprising given the fact that the Blackpool urban area covers a very large part of the authority. 

Maps are available that reveal the various rural-urban definitions across Lancashire down to the very small census output area level.

The National Biodiversity Network Gateway acts as a “data warehouse” for biodiversity information, which can be quickly and easily accessed to understand the distribution of particular species in the UK. Much of the local data is supplied by the Lancashire Environment Record Network (LERN), which is hosted by Lancashire County Council. An interactive map on this site shows the extent of the Environmental Record Centre coverage, including the LERN area, and when adding a species using the 'Add to Map' control, records of their sightings are displayed.

Carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas believed to be contributing to global warming. Total carbon dioxide emissions  in Blackpool are very low when measured in terms of tonnes per resident. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs website has the latest air pollution details across the whole of the UK. The interactive monitoring network map reveals a large number of sites across the country that include a site in Blackpool. Each monitoring site contains a link to allow users to view the last hour's data.  The current levels web page allows comparisons to be made between the constantly refreshed figures for the three Lancashire sites, and the results for all the other monitoring sites across the country. Mortality attributed to poor air quality was worse than the England average in 2015.

The Environment Agency samples bathing water quality between May and September to assess performance. in 2017, Blackpool South achieved the 'excellent' standard while Bispham, Blackpool Central and Blackpool North were classified as 'good'. The 2017 Blue Flag award results rated Blackpool South as one of only two beaches in the North West that were able to attain this international standard.  

The Fylde inshore marine conservation zone covers a site off the Fylde coast and the Ribble Estuary.

The rates of household waste sent for reuse, recycling or composting have in general been improving over the years as sharp increases in Landfill Tax have made the traditional form of Landfill disposal much more expensive. The household waste reuse, recycling and composting rate for Blackpool was 45.1% in 2015/16. The same article also highlights the consistently high number of fly-tipping incidents recorded in the authority.

  1. Health and Wellbeing

Figures for life expectancy at birth reveal that Blackpool had the lowest age for male and female expectancy in England for the 2013-15 period. The following graph reveals life expectancy changes in the authority by three-year time periods from 1991-93 onwards. The graph emphasises the growing disparities between the Blackpool and national averages and indicates that Blackpool's female value is now lower than the England male value. 

Life expectancy at birth, Blackpool graph

The Blackpool Health Profile, published by Public Health England, reveals that the health of people in the area is much worse than the England average, recording the worst rates for seven indicators.

The Blackpool Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust provides important care facilities in the general locality.  The major local hospital is the Blackpool Victoria. From April 2013 Blackpool Clinical Commissioning Group became responsible for making sure that the people of Blackpool have access to the community healthcare services they need.  

The Trauma and Injury Intelligence Group (TIIG) was established to develop an injury surveillance system covering the North West. The Lancashire section includes results for Blackpool Victoria Hospital.

The Sport England website contains local sport profiles for each local authority in England.

The local government association has produced 'housing, health and wellbeing profiles' for each local authority across the country. The figures go down to the ward level, and the Blackpool profile has results from the census, the index of multiple deprivation and other data sources. 

Public Health England has produced hypertension (high blood pressure profiles for each clinical commissioning group and some local authorities in England.

  1. Older People

It has been well documented over recent years that people are living longer and that the older age-groups will record some dramatic increases over future years, with associated financial implications and demand for health and social care services. The population aged 65 or over in Blackpool is projected to increase to 36,400 by 2039. 

Blackpool has a large number of state pension claimants. Pension credit is for pensioners at the lower end of the income scale and the caseload in the authority is by far the highest in Lancashire.

Attendance allowance provides financial help to people aged 65 or over who are physically or mentally disabled. The caseload in Blackpool is the largest among the 14 Lancashire local authorities.

Life expectancy as mentioned earlier is increasing but there is no guarantee that the extra years of life will necessarily equate to extra years of healthy life expectancy. However, it is not a foregone conclusion that "extra" years of life expectancy should necessarily lead to additional years with ill health or disability. More suitable community services to enable independent living and more effective practice of preventive lifestyles and medicine has the potential to lengthen disability-free life expectancy, particularly in the case of the prevention and treatment of non-fatal but disabling diseases.

The Lancashire Care Homes Association is an organisation that represents care providers across the broader Lancashire area. The website lists a large number of care and nursing homes, along with domiciliary care agencies in the area. The details are listed by major urban localities across the county.  

Page updated 17 November 2017