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Guidelines for the Selection of Biological Heritage Sites

7. Section 2: Species Guidelines


Application (all invertebrate guidelines)

Identification of sites on the basis of their invertebrate animal species should take account of the needs of many invertebrates for habitat and structural diversity, both at the 'macro' and 'micro' scales.  Small-scale habitats of particular importance to some invertebrates, such as dead wood or small patches of bare ground, occur and indeed may shift their position over time within large scale habitats e.g. woodland or grassland, on which the invertebrates also depend.  Moreover the larval and adult phases of the same species often need quite different habitats.  Invertebrates generally have annual life cycles, and their survival on a site depends on the continued availability of the right mixture of habitats at the right time of year - every year.  Such factors should be taken into account when determining site boundaries.

Species lists, especially for less well-recorded groups of invertebrates, should be regarded as tentative.  They include species recorded in Lancashire since 1950, those not recorded since 1978 being shown with an asterisk, or other notation.

It should be noted that the category 'nationally scarce', referring to species believed to occur between 16 and 100 10km squares of the National Grid, is sometimes subdivided in relation to invertebrate groups into 'Notable A' and 'Notable B'.  This subdivision has not been recognised in the following guidelines.


In Lancashire, as elsewhere, there are more species of invertebrate animals than of all plants and other animals combined.  Many invertebrate groups and species have declined dramatically in recent decades, and their conservation is a matter of widespread concern in Europe.  Until recently, it was thought that if sites were selected (and managed) on the basis of their botanical interest, then the invertebrates would automatically be catered for too.  This is not so:  it is important that due regard is paid to the contribution that invertebrates make to biodiversity, and of their habitat needs, in their own right, insofar as available information allows.

With such a large number of invertebrate groups, and the relative lack of knowledge about many of these, it is impossible to develop individual sets of guidelines for every species-group at the present time.  Where there is an adequate database for a particular species-group relating to Lancashire, specific guidelines have been devised and appear below.  For the remainder, there is a single, 'catch all', section which follows the standard approach adopted throughout the species section.


Application (all Other Invertebrate guidelines)

The following guidelines should be applied to any invertebrate groups not covered elsewhere, including those for which no species are listed under the relevent guideline.  Records of difficult or critical taxa should be subject to confirmation by a regional or national referee or other expert.  Account has been taken of the provisional changes to Red Data Book status which are made in the national species-group reviews produced by the Nature Conservancy Council and its successor the Joint Nature Conservation Committee.  The species lists below are known to be incomplete.  These lists include species recorded in Lancashire since 1950, those not recorded since 1977 being shown with an asterisk or other notation.  Only sites from which relevant records have been made since 1987 should usually be considered for designation as Biological Heritage Sites.  However, consideration may be given to sites where records have been made between 1978 and 1986 where no gross habitat changes are evident that are likely to have affected the species concerned.  Records made between 1950 and 1977 are considered to require confirmation and sites which qualify only on the basis of such records should be identified as provisional entries.

The species are listed in family order (Recorder version 3.21b) then alphabetically within families.

In1 Any site which regularly supports a population of an invertebrate species which is specifically protected under the Habitats Directive and/or listed in Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) and/or British Red Data Books: 2 Insects(1) or British Red Data Books: 3 Invertebrates other than insects(2), and not included under any other guideline.


All sites in the above categories should be included.  Relevant species records have been identified mainly from the Invertebrate Site Register (Parsons 1987) and national species-group reviews (see References).  Species to which this guideline may apply include:

Beetles (Coleoptera)
> Acrotrichis pumila A featherwing beetle
* Agaricophagus cephalotes A round fungus beetle
< Colon angulare A round fungus beetle
< Leiodes lunicollis A round fungus beetle
< Bledius erraticus A rove beetle
> Cypha nitida A rove beetle
< Cypha ovulum A rove beetle
> Hydrosmectina delicatissima A rove beetle
> Neobisnius procerulus A rove beetle
< Omalium rugulipenne A rove beetle
< Phytosus nigriventris A rove beetle
> Rhopalocerina clavigera A rove beetle
< Scopaeus gracilis A rove beetle
< Tachyusa scitula A rove beetle
< Thinobius brevipennis A rove beetle
> Bibloplectus minutissimus A short-winged mould beetle
< Brachygluta pandellei A short-winged mould beetle
< Agriotes sordidus A click beetle
< Lymexylon navale A timber beetle
Atomaria clavigera A silken fungus beetle
> Telmatophilus schoenherri A silken fungus beetle
> Orthoperus aequalis A minute fungus beetle
< Hippodamia tredecimpunctata 13-spot ladybird
< Corticeus unicolor A darkling beetle
< Acmaeops collaris A longhorn beetle
< Gracilia minuta A longhorn beetle
< Apteropeda splendida A leaf beetle
< Donacia bicolora A leaf beetle
< Ochrosis ventralis A leaf beetle
< Anthonomus rufus A weevil
< Ceutorhynchus arquatus A weevil
< Rhynchaenus testaceus A weevil
True Flies (Diptera)
? Erioptera meijerei A cranefly
* Gonomyia alboscutellata A cranefly
* Limnophila pictipennis A cranefly
? Molophilus czizeki A cranefly
Molophilus lackschewitzianus A cranefly
* Nephrotoma crocata A cranefly
- Scleroprocta pentagonalis A cranefly
* Tipula alpina A cranefly
* Tipula grisescens A cranefly
? Tipula hortorum A cranefly
* Triogma trisulcata A cranefly
* Haematopota bigoti A horsefly
Dialineura anilis A stiletto fly
Empis prodromus A dance fly
Platypalpus carteri A dance fly
Cheilosia chrysocoma A hoverfly
Cheilosia nebulosa A hoverfly
Doros profuges A hoverfly
? Epistophella euchroma A hoverfly
* Sphaerophoria loewi A hoverfly
* Sarcophaga ebrachiata A flesh fly
Bees and Wasps (Hymenoptera)
? Hartigia xanthostoma A sawfly
? Hedychridium coriaceum A rubytail wasp
Podalonia affinis A mud wasp
Psen littoralis A solitary wasp
Colletes cunicularius The vernal colletes
Osmia parietina Wall Mason Bee
Nomada lathburiana A nomad bee
Nomada robertjeotiana A nomad bee


Nemertean Worms (Enoplida)
  Prostoma jenningsi A nemertean worm
Crustaceans (Crustacea)
  Armadillidium pictum A pill woodlouse
  Austropotamobius pallipes Freshwater Crayfish
Nephrotoma crocata


The species in the above category are either threatened or rare in Western Europe or Britain and there is either an international or national responsibility for their conservation.

In2 Any site which regularly supports a population of a 'nationally scarce' invertebrate species not included under any other guideline.


All sites in the above category may be considered for inclusion.  However, recent surveys suggest that some species listed below may not in fact be nationally scarce, and this guideline should in practice be applied with discretion.  'Nationally scarce' invertebrates, referred to as 'Notable a' or 'Notable b', are listed in the Invertebrate Site Register and national species-group reviews.  Relevant nationally scarce species records may include:

Bugs (Hemiptera)
? Amblytylus brevicollis A plantbug or grassbug
? Globiceps cruciatus A plantbug or grassbug
? Globiceps flavomaculatus A plantbug or grassbug
? Monosynamma sabulicola A plantbug or grassbug
? Systellonotus triguttatus A plantbug or grassbug
? Trigonotylus psammaecolor A leafhopper
? Aphrodes aestuarinus A leafhopper
? Aphrodes limicola A leafhopper
? Aphrodes trifasciatus A leafhopper
Cosmotettix caudatus A leafhopper
? Macrosteles sordidipennis A leafhopper
Trigonocranus emmeae A lacehopper
? Chloriona dorsata A planthopper
Issus muscaenormis                A beetle bug
Lacewings (Neuroptera)
  Wesmaelius balticus A brown lacewing
  Chrysopa abbreviata A green lacewing
Beetles (Coleoptera)
Agonum nigrum A ground beetle
Bembidion bipunctatum A ground beetle
Bembidion fluviatile              A ground beetle
* Bembidion monticola A ground beetle
* Bembidion stomoides A ground beetle
< Dyschirius nitidus A ground beetle
Haliplus apicalis A crawling water beetle
Haliplus heydeni A crawling water beetle
Agabus biguttatus A water beetle
Agabus unguicularis A water beetle
Dytiscus circumflexus A water beetle
Hydroporus longicornis A water beetle
? Hydroporus neglectus A water beetle
Hydroporus obsoletus A water beetle
Ilybius aenescens A water beetle
Ilybius fenestratus A water beetle
Ilybius guttiger A water beetle
Ilybius subaeneus A water beetle
? Oreodytes davisi A water beetle
? Rhantus suturalis A water beetle
Stictonectes lepidus A water beetle
Cercyon convexiusculus A scavenger water beetle
Cercyon tristis A scavenger water beetle
Cercyon ustulatus A scavenger water beetle
Chaetarthria seminulum A scavenger water beetle
? Georissus crenulatus A scavenger water beetle
Helochares lividus A scavenger water beetle
? Helophorus arvernicus A scavenger water beetle
Helophorus fulgidicollis A scavenger water beetle
Helophorus griseus                A scavenger water beetle
Helophorus strigifrons A scavenger water beetle
* Peltodytes caesus A crawling water beetle
> Abraeus granulum A carrion beetle
> Gnathoncus buyssoni A carrion beetle
< Hypocaccus rugiceps A carrion beetle
Hydraena testacea A small water beetle
? Limnebius nitidus A small water beetle
? Ochthebius bicolon                A small water beetle
Ochthebius exsculptus A small water beetle
Ochthebius marinus A small water beetle
* Choleva glauca A round fungus beetle
< Aclypea opaca Beet Carrion Beetle
* Acidota cruentata A rove beetle
* Acrolocha minuta A rove beetle
< Bledius bicornis A rove beetle
> Lamprinodes saginatus A rove beetle
* Lathrobium angusticolle A rove beetle
* Lomechusa emarginata A rove beetle
< Ocypus nero A rove beetle
* Paederus fuscipes A rove beetle
< Philonthus corvinus A rove beetle
> Phyllodrepa puberula A rove beetle
* Quedius fulgidus A rove beetle
* Quedius longicornis A rove beetle
* Quedius puncticollis A rove beetle
> Stenus opticus A rove beetle
Amphimallon ochraceus A dung beetle
< Aphodius sordidus A dung beetle
Cetonia cuprea A dung beetle
< Euheptaulacus villosus A dung beetle
Cyphon pubescens A marsh beetle
< Curimopsis setigera A pill beetle
< Ctenicera pectinicornis A click beetle
< Fleutiauxellus maritimus A click beetle
< Fleutiauxellus quadripustulatus A click beetle
Cantharis obscura A soldier beetle
? Anitys rubens A wood boring beetle
* Meligethes umbrosus A pollen beetle
< Cyanostolus aeneus               A narrow bark beetle
< Pediacus depressus                A flat bark beetle
> Uleiota planata A flat bark beetle
> Anommatus duodecimstriatus A cerylonid beetle
< Anaspis thoracica A tumbling flower beetle
* Oncomera femorata A thick-legged flower beetle
< Prionus coriarius Sawyer Beetle
< Saperda carcharias               Poplar Borer
< Saperda scalaris A longhorn beetle
< Chrysolina sanguinolenta Toadflax Leaf Beetle
Cryptocephalus bipunctatus A leaf beetle
Donacia clavipes A leaf beetle
< Donacia sparganii A leaf beetle
< Longitarsus nigrofasciatus A leaf beetle
< Mantura chrysanthemi A leaf beetle
< Phyllotreta vittata A leaf beetle
< Pilemostoma fastuosa A leaf beetle
< Anthribus fasciatus A fungus weevil
< Choragus sheppardi              A fungus weevil
< Hemitrichapion reflexum A seed weevil
< Perapion affine A seed weevil
< Squamapion cineraceum A seed weevil
< Bagous lutulosus A weevil
< Ceutorhynchus angulosus A weevil
< Ceutorhynchus euphorbiae A weevil
< Ceutorhynchus quercicola A weevil
< Dorytomus hirtipennis A weevil
* Grypus equiseti Horsetail Weevil
< Gymnetron collinum              A weevil
< Gymnetron linariae                A weevil
< Isochnus foliorum A weevil
< Limobius borealis A weevil
* Notaris scirpi A weevil
Omiamima mollina A weevil
Trachodes hispidus                A weevil
Dryocoetinus alni A bark beetle
Trypophloeus asperatus A bark beetle
Caddisflies (Trichoptera)
> Rhyacophila septentrionis A caddisfly
Plectrocnemia brevis A caddisfly
> Phacopteryx brevipennis A caddisfly
True Flies (Diptera)
* Cheilotrichia imbuta A cranefly
* Dactylolabis sexmaculata A cranefly
? Dactylolabis transversa A cranefly
Dicranota robusta A cranefly
* Diogma glabrata A cranefly
- Limnophila glabricula A cranefly
Limnophila pulchella A cranefly
Limnophila trimaculata A cranefly
? Limonia lucida A cranefly
? Limonia occidua A cranefly
* Limonia trivittata A cranefly
* Molophilus bihamatus A cranefly
* Molophilus niger A cranefly
? Neolimnophila carteri A cranefly
* Nephrotoma dorsalis A cranefly
? Nephrotoma lunulicornis A cranefly
? Orimarga juvenilis A cranefly
* Thaumastoptera calceata A cranefly
- Tipula truncorum A cranefly
Dixella attica A meniscus midge
Beris clavipes A soldier fly
* Beris fuscipes A soldier fly
? Oxycera morrisii A soldier fly
Oxycera pygmaea A soldier fly
* Stratiomys potamida A soldier fly
- Zabrachia minutissima A soldier fly
? Ptiolina atra A bee fly
Dioctria oelandica A robber fly
Brachyopa insensilis A hoverfly
Brachyopa scutellaris A hoverfly
Brachypalpus laphriformis A hoverfly
Cheilosia soror A hoverfly
Cheilosia pubera A hoverfly
Chrysogaster macquarti A hoverfly
Criorhina ranunculi A hoverfly
Criorhina asilica A hoverfly
Didea fasciata A hoverfly
Eristalis rupium A hoverfly
Eumerus ornatus A hoverfly
? Megasyrphus annulipes A hoverfly
? Melangyna barbifrons A hoverfly
Melangyna triangulifera A hoverfly
Metasyrphus latilunulatus A hoverfly
Microdon mutabilis A hoverfly
Neoascia obliqua A hoverfly
Neoascia geniculata A hoverfly
? Neocnemodon latitarsis A hoverfly
- Neocnemodon verrucula A hoverfly
Orthonevra brevicornis A hoverfly
Orthonevra geniculata A hoverfly
Platycheirus discimanus A hoverfly
Platycheirus immarginatus A hoverfly
Platycheirus perpallidus A hoverfly
Platycheirus podagratus A hoverfly
Platycheirus sticticus A hoverfly
Sphegina verecunda A hoverfly
* Xylota abiens A hoverfly
Xylota coeruleiventris A hoverfly
Xylota florum A hoverfly
? Conops strigata A fly
Melieria cana A fly
* Tetanocera phyllophora A snail-killing fly
Geomyza majuscla A fly

Bees and Wasps (Hymenoptera)

? Cleptes nitidulus A ruby-tailed wasp
? Cleptes semiauratus A ruby-tailed wasp
? Hedychridium cupreum A ruby-tailed wasp
? Priocnemis schioedtei A spider-hunting wasp
? Podalonia hirsuta Hairy Sand Wasp
Ectemnius ruficornis A solitary wasp
? Pemphredon morio A solitary wasp
Andrena humilis A mining bee
Stelis punctulatissima A cuckoo bee
Crustaceans (Crustacea)
* Scapholeberis aurita A water flea
Armadillidium pulchellum A pill woodlouse
* Trichoniscoides saeroeensis A woodlouse
Spiders (Arachnida)
Arctosa cinerea A wolf spider
+ Argenna patula A mesh webbed spider
Rugathodes bellicosus A comb-footed spider
* Tetragnatha striata A long-jawed spider
+ Lepthyphantes insignis A money spider
Mecopisthes peusi A money spider
+ Mioxena blanda A money spider
Satilatlas britteni A money spider
Walckenaeria incisa A money spider


Nationally scarce species occur only in 16-100 10km squares (inclusive) in Britain; their conservation is a matter of national concern.

In3 Any site which regularly supports a population of an invertebrate species which is recorded from three or fewer localities in Lancashire not included under any other guideline.


Any site in this category may be considered for inclusion.  However, systematically obtained recent information on these groups of animals is insufficiently advanced for relevant species to be listed. However, the following species is believed to satisfy the terms of the guidlines:

Moss Animals (Bryozoa)
Plumatella fungosa A moss animal

In4 Any site which regularly supports a significant proportion of the Lancashire population, or contributes significantly to the range in Lancashire, of an invertebrate species which is recorded from more than three localities in the County, but which could be at risk because of very small populations, recent rapid decline or habitat loss or change, and which is not included under any other guideline.


It is considered that recent systematic recording of the animal groups concerned is insufficiently advanced to allow the application of this guideline.

(1) Shirt (1987)
(2) Bratton (1991)
* Last recorded 1950-1977
- Last recorded before 1960
+ Last recorded after 1960
? Date of last record unknown
< Last recorded prior to 1970
> Recorded post 1970

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