Trade Advice Document
Trading advice from several sources is available to help businesses comply with the law.
The Health and Safety Executive website has advice on:
The Chartered Trading Standards Institute provides advice on a number of topics:
In the guide
- Preventing the sale of alcohol to children - an overview
- The law
- Proxy sales of alcohol
- Keeping within the law
This guidance is for England & Wales
Everyone involved in sales from on-licensed and off-licensed premises should be aware of their obligations under the Licensing Act 2003 relating to the prevention of sales of alcohol to children.
It is essential that you keep within the law and have systems in place that will act as a legal defence to an allegation that an underage sale of alcohol has taken place. If you do sell alcohol to an individual who is under 18 you could be prosecuted and fined and your licence to sell alcohol could be at risk.
The Licensing Act 2003 sets out a series of objectives, which a licensing authority is required to promote. 'The licensing objectives are:
- the prevention of crime and disorder
- public safety
- the prevention of public nuisance
- the protection of children from harm'
The objective on 'the protection of children from harm' includes preventing the sale and supply of alcohol to children. The law sets out the framework that aims to achieve this objective.
The premises licence holder, the designated premises supervisor (who must be a personal licence holder), any other personal licence holders, and staff within on-licensed and off-licensed premises should all be aware of their obligations under the Licensing Act 2003 relating to the prevention of sales of alcohol to children.
It is the premises licence holder and designated premises supervisor's responsibility to keep within the law and to have systems in place that will act as a legal defence to an allegation that a sale of alcohol has taken place to an individual under the minimum legal age.
A penalty notice for disorder (PND) is a type of fixed penalty notice that can be issued by a police officer, police community support officer or an 'accredited person' to a person who sells alcohol to someone under the age of 18. It is intended to provide a quick and effective means of dealing with certain types of offending, as an alternative to prosecution, and may be issued where the person making the sale is the bar person or member of staff in off-licensed premises. The current penalty charge is £90.
A responsible authority, such as police or trading standards may ask the licensing authority to review the licence because of a problem at the premises related to any of the four licensing objectives. The licence could be suspended or revoked. Other licensable activities and non-licensable activities are not affected by this suspension order.
The Licensing Act 2003 sets out the offences, defences and penalties that relate to underage sales of alcohol.
Sale of alcohol to children
A person commits an offence if he sells alcohol to an individual under 18.
A person charged with an offence has a defence available that he believed the individual was 18 or over, and he had either taken all reasonable steps to find out the individual's age or that no one could reasonably suspect from their appearance that they were under 18. 'Reasonable steps' means asking the individual for evidence of their age, and that the evidence would convince a reasonable person.
Where a person is charged with an offence due to the conduct of someone else - a member of staff for instance - he has the defence that he exercised all due diligence to avoid committing it. (The 'Keeping within the law' section below explains what this means.)
Allowing the sale of alcohol to children
A person who works at premises in a capacity that authorises her to prevent the sale of alcohol to an individual under 18 commits an offence if he knowingly allows the sale of alcohol to take place.
Persistently selling alcohol to children
It is an offence for a 'responsible person' (the premises licence holder) to unlawfully sell alcohol to an individual under 18 at the same premises on two or more different occasions within a period of three consecutive months.
An 'unlawful sale' is defined as where the person making the sale believed the individual was under 18 or that the person did not have reasonable grounds for believing the individual was 18 or over. 'Reasonable grounds' means asking the individual for evidence of their age and that this evidence when provided would convince a reasonable person, or that no one would reasonably suspect from the individual's appearance that they were under 18.
An enforcing body, such as the police or trading standards, can apply for a closure notice, which prohibits the sale of alcohol at the premises, as an alternative to prosecution; the duration of this notice can range from 48 to 336 hours. Where a premises licence holder is convicted of an offence of persistently selling alcohol to children, the court may suspend the licence authorising the sale of alcohol at that premises for a period of up to three months.
Prohibition of unsupervised sales by children
The premises licence holder, designated premises supervisor, or other responsible person over the age of 18, commits an offence if he allows an individual under 18 to sell or supply alcohol unless the sale has been specifically approved and person is supervised. There are exceptions if alcohol is sold or supplied for consumption with a table meal. You need to check the ages of your staff and make sure you comply with the law.
'Proxy sales' is a term used to describe the purchase of alcohol on behalf of children.
A person commits an offence if he buys or attempts to buy alcohol on behalf someone under the age of 18. It is also an offence for a person to buy or attempt to buy alcohol for someone under the age of 18 years to drink on licensed premises. However, it is legal for someone over 18 to buy beer, wine or cider for someone aged 16 or 17 to drink with a table meal on licensed premises, as long as the young person is accompanied at the meal by a person over the age of 18.
Although it is the person who buys or attempts to buy alcohol for a child who commits the offence, you have a duty under 'the protection of children from harm' licensing objective to prevent such sales from occurring.
In order to keep within the law and therefore satisfy the legal defences, you must introduce an age verification policy and have effective systems to prevent sales to persons under the minimum legal age. These systems should be regularly monitored and updated as necessary to identify and put right any problems or weaknesses or to keep pace with any advances in technology.
Key best practice features of an effective system include:
Age verification checks
The Licensing Act 2003 (Mandatory Licensing Conditions) Order 2010 introduced conditions that apply to all licensed premises. One of these is that if your premises sells or supplies alcohol, you must have an age verification policy. Always ask young people to produce proof of their age. The Chartered Trading Standards Institute, the Home Office and the Association of Chief Police Officers support the UK's national Proof of Age Standards Scheme (PASS), which includes a number of card issuers. You can be confident that a card issued under the scheme and bearing the PASS hologram is an acceptable proof of age; there are a number of card issuers in the scheme. A passport or photocard driving licence can also be accepted but make sure the card matches the person using it and that the date of birth shows they are the minimum legal age. If the person cannot prove they are the minimum legal age, then the sale should be refused.
Operate a 'challenge 21' or 'challenge 25' policy
This means that if the person appears to be under the age of 21 or 25, they will be asked to verify that they are the minimum legal age by showing valid proof of age. You can incorporate this into your age verification policy.
Make sure your staff are properly trained. They should know which products are age restricted, what the age restriction is and the action they must take if they believe an underage person is attempting to buy. It is important that you can prove that your staff have understood what is required of them under the legislation. This can be done by keeping a record of the training and asking the member of staff to sign to say that they have understood it. These records should then be checked and signed on a regular basis by management or the owner. Members of staff should be advised that they themselves might be personally liable if they sell to young persons in breach of the legal requirements.
Maintain a refusals log
All refusals should be recorded (date, time, incident, description of potential buyer). Some tills have a refusals system built in. Maintaining a refusals log will help to demonstrate that you actively refuse sales and have an effective system in place. Logs should be checked by the manager / owner to ensure that all members of staff are using them. If using a till-based system, you should ensure that refusals can be retrieved at a later date. You should also be aware that some refusals are made before a product is scanned.
A specimen refusals log is attached.
Store & product layout
Off-licensed premises should consider the layout of their store and site the alcohol in a place where it can be easily monitored, such as nearer to the counter or even behind it.
If you possess an EPoS system then it may be possible to use it to remind staff of age restrictions via a prompt.
Display posters showing age limits and a statement regarding the refusal of such sales. This may deter potential purchasers and act as a reminder to staff.
Closed circuit television (CCTV)
A CCTV system may act as a deterrent and reduce the number of incidents of underage sales. It will also help you to monitor 'blind spots' within your store if it is not possible to change the layout or relocate the products behind, or closer to, the counter. Stay vigilant: be aware of any young people outside your premises or nearby who may attempt to buy alcohol themselves or who may try and persuade an older person to buy it on their behalf.
If you sell alcohol to an individual who is under 18 you could be prosecuted and the maximum penalty on conviction is an unlimited fine. A personal licence to sell alcohol could be at risk.
If you knowingly allow the sale of alcohol to children you could be prosecuted and the maximum penalty on conviction is an unlimited fine.
Where persistent sales of alcohol to underage individuals take place, the premises licence holder could receive a maximum penalty on conviction of an unlimited fine, or a premises closure notice could be issued. Previous convictions, cautions and fixed penalties relating to sales of alcohol to individuals under 18 can all be used by the enforcing body as evidence.
If you allow someone under 18 to sell alcohol unsupervised the maximum penalty on conviction is a £200 fine.
A penalty notice for disorder (PND) may be issued where the person making the sale to an underage individual is a bar person or member of staff in an off-licensed premises. The current penalty charge is £90.
Last reviewed / updated: February 2016
This information is intended for guidance; only the courts can give an authoritative interpretation of the law.
The guide's 'Key legislation' links may only show the original version of the legislation, although some amending legislation is linked to separately where it is directly related to the content of a guide. Information on amendments to UK legislation can be found on each link's 'More Resources' tab; amendments to EU legislation are usually incorporated into the text.
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